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Treaty on Concord and Cooperation between Canada and the Russian Federation [1993] CATSer 3 (4 April 1993)

E100719 - CTS 1993 No. 23



GUIDED by the desire to strengthen the ties of friendship and cooperation,

NOTING that the radical changes of recent times in the international political environment and world community create new opportunities for closer bilateral relations between Canada and the Russian Federation,

DESIRING to achieve further rapprochement on the basis of partnership, mutual trust, adherence to the common values and ideals of freedom, democracy, justice, solidarity and human dignity,

NOTING the importance of the Declaration of Friendship and Cooperation between Canada and the Russian Federation and the Memorandum of Understanding on Consultations between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Russian Federation, signed on February 1, 1992, and desiring to lay down a solid treaty foundation for the continuous development of long-term relations between Canada and the Russian Federation in various fields,

CONFIRMING their observance of the rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedoms,

DESIRING to reinforce their efforts toward international peace and security, as well as in pursuance of the aims and principles of the United Nations Charter,

NOTING the importance of strengthening international security through disarmament and the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons, related technology and equipment,

CONSCIOUS of their role in the preservation of the environment,

RECOGNIZING the great potential which has developed in recent years in relations between Canada and the Russian Federation, and having decided to raise their bilateral relations to a new level,

HAVE AGREED as follows:


Canada and the Russian Federation agree to develop their relations as friendly states in accordance with the UN Charter, relevant human rights instruments, the Helsinki Final Act, the Charter of Paris and other documents of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Their relations shall be characterized by mutual trust, respect, solidarity, cooperation and a common commitment to democracy and economic freedom.

They shall fulfil in good faith their obligations under international law and promote good neighbourliness in their relations and with all other states.

The Parties will cooperate within the relevant international organizations to promote human rights, democratic values, social justice and prosperity.


Canada and the Russian Federation agree to refrain from the threat or use of force against each other's territorial integrity or political independence, and to settle any mutual disputes by peaceful means, and for this purpose to use the mechanisms of the United Nations, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and other international instruments to which they are parties.

Should either Party become the object of armed aggression, the other Party, consistent with its security and defence arrangements and relations, shall not render the aggressor military or any other assistance.

Should either Party believe that an emerging situation threatens international peace or its vital security interests, bilateral consultations will be held at its request.


Canada and the Russian Federation agree to maintain a regular dialogue at the highest political level of the two countries on principal issues of their bilateral relations, on developments in their countries, as well as on issues of mutual and international concern.

They will promote cooperation at all levels, including consultations between Foreign Ministers and cooperation between elected leaders, legislative and executive bodies, public officials and private organizations with the aim of ensuring further expansion and deepening of their bilateral relations and of co-ordinating their stands on international issues.

They will negotiate constructively on bilateral issues, respecting each other's aspirations and interests.

The Parties will promote the activities of the mixed commissions on economic, agricultural, environmental, and Arctic and northern cooperation. New mixed commissions and other standing or ad hoc bodies will be established as required and by mutual agreement.


Canada and the Russian Federation confirm their respective arms control obligations. They will support international efforts directed at reducing force levels and building confidence.

They reaffirm their strong commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1968 and the Convention on Biological and Toxic Weapons of 1972, and their readiness to conclude an agreement on a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons at the earliest possible date.

The Parties will continue their bilateral cooperation with the aim of resolving outstanding issues at the Conference on Disarmament.

They agree to implement measures, including export controls, to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and related technologies.

The Parties will cooperate in the conversion of defence industries to technologically and economically competitive civilian production.


Canada and the Russian Federation shall expand and enhance cooperation within the United Nations to strengthen the Organization's peace-making role, including the prevention of conflicts and crisis situations, to increase the effectiveness of the collective security system provided for in the UN Charter, to build up the United Nations contribution to the solution of contemporary global problems and to shape a new and just world order.


The Parties shall do their utmost to foster mutual understanding and cooperation in Europe. They will work together in enhancing the effectiveness of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, particularly as an instrument for the prevention and settlement of international conflicts, the protection of human rights and the rights of minorities, and the development of democratic institutions.

Canada and the Russian Federation as Pacific nations shall contribute to strengthening stability and security in the Asian-Pacific region and promote efforts aimed at solving regional political, economic, social, environmental and other problems with a view to enhancing peaceful cooperation.


Consistent with the Agreement on Trade and Commerce of June 19, 1992, the Agreement for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments of November 20, 1989, and the Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation on Income of June 13, 1985, the Parties shall promote and facilitate favourable conditions for bilateral commercial activity, including trade and joint venture investment. They shall encourage entrepreneurial activities between the two countries in keeping with the Russian Federation's market reforms and its integration into the global economy.

The Parties shall endeavour to create favourable conditions for economic cooperation, fair and equitable business practices, market transparency, and greater exchanges of business information. They shall endeavour to reflect this through their participation in the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, other international financial institutions and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

Unless otherwise agreed, the Parties shall accord priority to trade, investment, and other economic cooperation in areas such as energy, defence industry conversion, natural resource development, transportation, construction, agriculture, food processing, fisheries, professional services, and other areas of mutual interest.


The Parties attach particular importance to strengthening the multilateral trading system. They will support further steps toward liberalization, transparency, and the implementation of the principles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, concerning both trade and investment.

They will support the activities of the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other multilateral fora, particularly as they bear on the Russian Federation's transition to a market economy.


The Parties will enhance cooperation in the Arctic and the North, regarding it as a priority area in Canadian-Russian relations. They will devote particular attention to strengthening economic cooperation, environmental protection and joint scientific research between the Arctic and Northern regions of Canada and the Russian Federation.

They will promote and facilitate direct contacts between local, regional and territorial governments and Aboriginal Peoples of the northern regions of Canada and the Russian Federation on the basis of their own working agreements.


Canada and the Russian Federation recognize the global importance of environmental protection. They will enhance their cooperation in the protection of the environment and preservation at the national and regional level of the world's fragile ecosystems, reflecting the common desire of their peoples.

They will work together in seeking to resolve environmental problems, and in applying the principles of sustainable development to the use of natural resources, inter alia, along the lines specified in the relevant bilateral agreement.


The Parties shall give fresh impetus to their cooperation in the areas of space research and nuclear energy on the basis of coordinated programmes. They will also determine new priority areas of research in science and technology.


Canada and the Russian Federation will cooperate to prevent organized crime, illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, illegal acts against the security of civil aviation and sea navigation, and smuggling, including the illegal trans-border traffic in valuable cultural artefacts.


The Parties will develop military contacts and exchanges, in accordance with the Agreement concerning Visits on Military Matters of November 20, 1989. They shall regularly exchange opinions and information on their military doctrines and other issues of military interest.


Recognizing the importance of cultural and sports exchanges for mutual understanding between peoples, Canada and the Russian Federation shall develop further their bilateral cooperation in the fields of culture and sports.

The Parties shall promote direct cooperation between educational, cultural and creative institutions and sport organizations of the two countries, as well as between associations in these fields.


The Parties will make best efforts to create conditions for the expansion of direct contacts between individuals, institutions, and organizations.

The Parties shall promote the expansion of contacts between political parties, trade unions, foundations, schools and institutions of higher learning, human rights, religious, womens and youth organizations, environmental and other associations.

Canada and the Russian Federation will develop interparliamentary contacts and exchanges, including those between representatives of different parties and popular movements of the two countries. The Parties will promote the sharing of experience in the formulation and enactment of legislation.


The Parties shall encourage cooperation between provinces and territories of Canada and republics and regions of the Russian Federation, and at the regional and municipal levels.


The Parties shall ensure on the basis of reciprocity conditions for the normal functioning of each other's diplomatic, consular and other official missions.


Canada and the Russian Federation shall enter into special agreements and arrangements, if necessary, with a view to implementing the provisions of this Treaty. They shall continue implementation of existing bilateral agreements and review them, if necessary.


The provisions of the present Treaty are without prejudice to the commitments of the Parties under previously signed bilateral and multilateral treaties and agreements.

This Treaty is not directed against third countries.


This Treaty shall be subject to ratification in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each Party and shall come into force on the day of exchange of letters of ratification.

It shall remain in force for a period of ten years, and shall be automatically prolonged for subsequent five-year periods, if neither side declares its desire to terminate its operation by notification in writing one year before the expiry of the appropriate period.

DONE in duplicate at Ottawa this 19th day of June, 1992, in the English, French and Russian languages, each version being equally authentic.

Brian Mulroney


Boris Yeltsin


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