AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN RELATING TO AIR SERVICES
The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan hereinafter described as the Contracting Parties, Being parties to the Convention
on International Civil Aviation and the International Air Services Transit Agreement, both opened for signature at Chicago on the
7th Day of December 1944 and Desiring to conclude an Agreement for the purpose of establishing and operating air services between
and beyond the territories of Indis and Pakistan. Agree as follows
(A) Each Contracting Party grants to the other Contracting Party the right to operate the air services specified in the Annex to this
Agreement (hereinafter referred to as the "specified air services") and to carry traffic to, from and in transit over,
its territory as provided in this Agreement.
(B) The airlines designated as provided in Article II hereof shall have the right to use
(i) for traffic purposes, airports provided for public use at the points specified in the Annex to this Agreement and ancillary services
provided for public use on the air routes specified in the said Annex (hereinafter referred to as the "specified air routes")
(ii) for non-traffic purposes, all airports and ancillary services provided for public use on the specified air routes: Provided that
the places of first landing and final departure shall be customs airports.
(A) Each of the specified air services may be inaugurated immediately or at a later date at the option of the contracting Party to
whom the rights under this Agreement are granted, on condition that
(1) the Contracting Party to whom the rights have been granted shall have designated an airline (hereinafter referred to as a "designated
airline") for the specified air route;
(2) the Contracting Party which grants the rights shall have given the appropriate operating permission to the airline pursuant to
Paragraph (C) of this Article which it shall do with the least possible delay.
(B) Substantial ownership and effective control of the designated airlines of each Contracting Party shall be vested in the Party
or its nationals.
(C) The designated airline may be required to satisfy the aeronautical authorities of the Contracting Party granting the rights that
it is qualified to fulfil the conditions prescribed by or under the laws and regulations normally applied by those authorities to
the operation of commercial air service.
(D) The operation of each of the specified air service shall be subject to the Agreement of the Contracting Party concerned that the
route organisation available for civil aviation on the specified air route is adequate for the safe operation of air service.
A designated airline may, subject to the provision of Article IV, carry across, set down and pick up in the territory of one Contracting
Party traffic originating in or destined for the territory of the other Contracting Party or of a third country on the specified
In order to achieve and maintain equilibrium between the capacity of the specified air services and the requirements of the public
for air transport on the specified air routes or sections thereof and in order to achieve and maintain proper relationship between
the specified air services inter se and between these air services and other air services operating on the specified air routes or
sections thereof, the Contracting Parties agree as follows:
(A) The airlines of each Contracting Party shall enjoy equal rights for the operation of air services for the carriage of traffic
between the territories of the two parties.
(B) To the extent that the airlines of one of the Contracting Parties are temporarily unable to make use of the rights referred to
in paragraph (A), the situation will be mutually examined by the two Parties for the purpose of aiding as soon as possible the airlines
concerned increasingly to make their proper contribution to the services contemplated.
(C) In the operation by the airlines of either Contracting Party of the specified air service the interests of the airlines of the
other Party shall be taken into consideration so as not to affect unduly the services which the latter provide on all or part of
the same route.
(D) The air transport offered by the airlines of each Contracting Party on different sections of the specified air routes shall bear
a close relationship to the needs of the public for air transport and to the traffic interests of the airlines concerned as provided
in this Agreement.
(E) The services provided by a designated airline under this Agreement shall retain as their primary objective the provision (along
with the airlines of the other States concerned) of capacity adequate to the traffic demands between the country of which such airline
is a national and the country of ultimate destination of the traffic, and the right of the designated airlines of either Party to
embark and to disembark in the territory of the other Party international traffic destined for or coming from third countries on
specified air routes shall be applied in accordance with the general principles of orderly development to which both Parties subscribe
and shall be subject to the general principle that capacity shall be related:
(1) to the requirements of traffic between the country of origin of the air service and destinations on the specified air routes,
(2) to the air transport needs of the area through which the airline passes, and
(3) to the adequacy of other air transport services established by airlines of the States concerned between their respective territories.
When, for the purpose of economy of onward carriage of through traffic, different aircrafts are used on different sections of a specified
air route, with the point of change in the territory of one of the Contracting Parties, such change of aircraft shall not affect
the provisions of this Agreement relating to the capacity of the air service and the carriage of traffic. In such cases the second
aircraft shall be scheduled to provide a connecting service with the first aircraft, and shall normally await its arrival.
(A) Rates shall be fixed at reasonable levels, due regard being paid to all relevant factors, including costs of comparable economic
operations, reasonable profit, differences of characteristics of service and the rates charged by other operators, if any, on the
(B) The rates to be charged by any of the airlines designated under this Agreement in respect of traffic between the territories of
the two Parties shall be agreed in the first instance between the designated airlines in consultation with other airlines operating
on the route or any section thereof, and shall have regard to relevant rates adopted by the International Air Transport Association.
Any rates so agreed shall be subject to the approval of the aeronautical authorities of the Contracting Parties. In the event of
disagreement between the airlines, the Contracting Parties themselves shall endeavour to reach agreement and shall take all necessary
steps to give effect to such agreement. Should the Contracting Parties fail to agree, the dispute shall be dealt with in accordance
with Article XI. Pending the settlement of the dispute by agreement or until it is decided under Article XI, the rates already established
(C) Pending the acceptance by both Parties of any recommendations which the International Civil Aviation Organization may make with
regard to the regulation of rates for traffic other than that defined in paragraph (B) of this Article, the rates to be charged by
an airline of one Contracting Party in respect of traffic between the territory of the other Contracting Party and a third country
shall be fixed on the basis of the principles set out in paragraph (A) of this Article and after taking into consideration the interests
of the airlines of the other Party and shall not vary unduly in a discriminatory manner from the rates established by the airlines
of the other Party operating air services on that part of the specified air routes concerned: Provided, however, that a designated
airline shall not be required to charge rates higher than those established specified air routes. by any other airline operating
(D) If the International Civil Aviation Organization does not, within a reasonable time, establish a means of determining rates for
traffic defined in paragraph (C) of this Article in a manner acceptable to both Parties, they shall consult each other in accordance
with Article X of this Agreement with a view to such modification of paragraph (C) of this Article as appears desirable.
(A) The aeronautical authorities of both Contracting Parties shall exchange information as promptly as possible concerning the authorisation
extended to their respective designated airlines to render service to, through and from the territory of the other Contracting Party.
This will include copies of current certificates and authorisations for service on the specified air routes, together with amendments,
exemption orders and authorized service patterns.
(B) Each Contracting Party shall cause its designated airlines to provide to the aeronautical authorities of the other Contracting
Party, as long in advance as practicable, copies of time tables. tariff schedules and all other relevant information concerning thc
operation of the specified air services and of all modification thereof.
(C) Each Contracting Party shall cause its designated airlines tc provide to the aeronautical authorities of the other Contracting
Party statistics relating to the traffic carried on their air servicer to, from or over the territory of the other Contracting Party
showing the origin and destination of the traffic.
(A) Fuel, lubricating oils and spare parts introduced into or taken on board aircraft in the territory of one Contracting Party by,
or on behalf of, the other Contracting Party or its designated airlines shall be accorded, with respect to customs duty, inspection
fees or other charges imposed by the former Contracting Party. treatment not less favourable than that granted to its national airlines
engaged in international public transport or to the airlines of the most-favoured nation.
(B) Supplies of fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft stores retained on board aircraft of the designated
airlines of one Contracting Party shall be exempt in the territory of the other Contracting Party from customs duties, inspection
fees or similar duties or charges, even though such supplies be used by such aircraft on flights in that territory. Goods so exempted
may only be unloaded with the approval of the customs authorities of the other Contracting Party. These goods, which are to be re-exported,
shall be kept in bond, until re-exportation under customs supervision.
Each Contracting Party reserves the right to itself to withhold, or revoke or impose such appropriate conditions as it may deem necessary
with respect to an operating permission in case of failure by a designated airline of the other Party to comply with the laws and
regulations of the former Party, or in case, in the judgment of the former Party, there is a failure to fulfil the conditions under
which the rights are granted in accordance with this Agreement. Such action shall be taken only after consultation between the Parties.
In the event of action by one Party under this Article, the rights of the other Party under Article XI shall not be prejudiced.
(A) In a spirit of close collaboration, the aeronautical authorities of the two Contracting Parties will consult regularly with a
view to ensuring the observance of the principles and the implementation of the provisions outlined in this Agreement.
B) Either Contracting Party may at any time request consultation with the other with a view to initiating any amendments of this Agreement
which may be desirable. Such consultation shall begin within a period of sixty days from the date of the request. Any modification
of this Agreement agreed to as a result of such consultation shall come into effect when it has been confirmed by an exchange of
C) When the procedure for consultation provided for in paragraph (B) of this Article has been initiated, either Contracting Party
may at any time give notice to the other of its desire to terminate this Agreement as provided in paragraph (E) of this Article.
Such notice shall be simultaneously communicated to the International Civil Aviation Organization.
(D) Changes made by either Contracting Party in the specified air routes, except those which change
(1) the final point of departure within its own territory and
(2) the points served by the designated airlines in the territory of the other Contracting Party, shall not be considered as modifications
of this Agreement. The aeronautical authorities of either Contracting Party may therefore proceed unilaterally to make such changes,
provided, however, that notice of any change shall be given without delay to the aeronautical authorities of the other Contracting
Party. If such latter aeronautical authorities find that, having regard to the principles set forth in Article IV of this Agreement,
the interests of any of their airlines are prejudiced by the carriage by a designated airline of the first Contracting Party of traffic
between the territory of the second Contracting Party and the new point in the territory of a third country, the latter Party may
request consultation in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (B) of this Article.
(E) This Agreement shall terminate one year after the date of receipt by the other Contracting Party of the notice to terminate unless
the notice is withdrawn by Agreement before the expiration of this period. In the absence of acknowledgement of receipt by the other
Contracting Party notice shall be deemed to have been received fourteen days after the receipt of the notice by the International
Civil Aviation Organization.
(A) If any dispute arises between the Contracting Parties relating to the interpretation or application of the present Agreement,
the Contracting Parties shall in the first place endeavour to settle it by negotiation between themselves.
(B) If the Contracting Parties fail to reach a settlement by negotiation,
(i) they may agree to refer to the dispute for decision to an arbitral tribunal appointed by agreement between them or to some other
person or body; or
(ii) if they do not so agree or if, having agreed to refer the dispute to an arbitral tribunal, they cannot reach agreement as to
its composition, either Contracting Party may submit the dispute for decision to any tribunal competent to decide it which may hereafter
be established within the International Civil Aviation Organization or, if there is no such tribunal, to the Council of the said
Organization, or failing that, to the International Court of Justice.
C) The Contracting Parties undertake to comply with any decision given under paragraph (B) of this Article.
D) If and so long as either Contracting Party or a designated airline of either Contracting Party fails to comply with a decision
given under paragraph (B) of this Article, the other Contracting Party may limit, withhold or revoke any rights which it has granted
by virtue of the present Agreement and its Annex.
This Agreement shall come into force on the 1st day of July 1948. The Agreement and all relative contracts shall be registered with
the nternational Civil Aviation Organization.
In the event of the conclusion of a multilateral convention or greement concerning air transport to which both Contracting Parties
dhere, this Agreement shall be modified to conform with the rovisions of such convention or agreement.
(A)For the purpose of this Agreement the terms "territory", "air service", and "airline" shall have
the meaning specified in the Convention on International Civil Aviation.
(B) The term "aeronautical authorities" shall mean, in the case of Pakistan the Director General of Civil Aviation in Pakistan
and in the case of India, the Director General of Civil Aviation, India, and in both cases any person or body authorised to perform
the functions presently exercised by the above-mentioned authorities.
(C)The Annex to this Agreement shall be deemed to be part of the Agreement and all references to the "Agreement" shall include
references to the "Annex", except where otherwise expressly provided.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present Agreement.
DONE this 23rd day of June 1948, in duplicate at Karachi in the English language.
For the Government of India:
(Signed) SRI PRAKASA
For the Government of Pakistan: 1.
(Signed) A.R. NISHTAR ANNEX
An airline designated by the Government of India shall be entitled to operate air services in both directions on each of the routes
specified in this paragraph and to land for traffic purposes in the territory of Pakistan at each of the points therein specified.
(1) Delhi and/or Jodhpur to Karachi.
(4) Ahmedabad and/or Bhuj—Karachi.
(8) Bombay or Delhi to Karachi and thence to Muscat, points in the Persian Gulf, points in Oman and Qatar Peninsulas, points in Iran,
points in Iraq, points in the Middle East and points in Europe including the United Kingdom and if desired, beyond.
(9) Bombay or Delhi, Karachi, Masirah, points in Hadramaut, Aden and via intermediate points to Dar-es-Salaam and, if desired, beyond.
(10) Calcutta to Ghittagong, points in Burma, Siam, Indo- China and Hongkong to China and, if desired, beyond.
2. An airline designated by the Government of Pakistan shall be entitled to operate air services in both directions on each of the
routes specified in this paragraph and to land for traffic purposes in the territories of India at each of the points therein specified.
(3) Karachi—Bombay—Colombo and, if desired, beyond.
(4) Karachi—Delhi—Calcutta—Dacca and/or to Chittagong.
(5) Karachi—Calcutta—Rangoon and, if desired, beyond.
3. Points on any of the specified routes may, at the option of an airline designated by one Party be omitted on any or all flight(s),
provided however that service(s) Nos. 8, 9, and 10 in paragraph 1 and service(s) 4 & 5 in paragraph 2 above shall not, except
with the consent of the other Party, be operated otherwise than as through service(s) terminating beyond the territory of the other
(Initiated) A.R.N. 23.6.1948 (Initialed) S.P. 23.6.1948.