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Constitution of Kenya Review Commission
By John W. B. Owigar,Director, Metro Educational And Industrial Consultant(K) and Chairman, Association Of Living Values Educators (Kenya)
1.01 DEFINITION OF ETHICS
Ethics; is a moral law of human conduct or behaviour considered from the point of view of good or evil. It is an action, which is morally good or morally evil. If some behaviour is according to moral law, it is ethical. Every person has a right to be treated in a dignified manner at every stage of his life from conception, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Since there is no stage at which he ceases to be human, any mistreatment towards him is always a serious matter and it is considered morally bad.
The word ethics is derived from the Greek noun ethos meaning "the customs and conventions of a given community”. There is a similarity of the origin of the two words: ethics and morality. Ethics is therefore often used as a synonym of morality as when we speak of religious ethics, social ethics, personal ethics, professional ethics. Within this context ethics stands for set of norms guiding human conduct. In this way religious ethics refers to the norms for religious living, governing behaviour as acceptable by religious people.
Central to ethics are the norms which serve as moral standards we use to evaluate human conduct, or human behaviour ,in terms of right or wrong morally good or morally bad. For all practical purposes, these norms or standards reflecting moral principles and values are often expressed in the form of laws rules and regulations. Take for example the basic traffic rule that a bus should not travel beyond 85 km per hour. If a bus driver allows the bus to travel at 100 km per hour, he/she is not simply breaking a traffic rule or law his/her behaviour violates the norms of responsible driving by endangering the lives of the passengers in the bus. The traffic rule merely expresses what responsible driving demands not to drive faster than is permissible. There are three sources of morality: religion, society and the human person, i.e. religious ethics, social ethics and personal ethics.
Religious Ethics:- There is a supernatural source of moral standards for the believer. Religious ethics finds expression in the laws of God, as found in sacred writings such as the Bible, Quran, Tora e.t.c. and in religious traditions. For a religious person stealing or killing is wrong because God forbids it, caring for ones neighbour is morally right, because God commands it. Knowledge of divine laws is required above all no further argument seems necessary.
Social Sources of Morality :- These include family and parental authority the clan and the authority of the elders but also the school, neighborhood, the peer group. There is further the wider community, which expresses its norms through customs and conventions through public opinion, through national and international laws.
1.02 DEFINITION OF LIVING VALUES:
Living Values is re-discovering human potential (values) and developing them for a better living. Human values is an expression of internal state of self worthiness of a person, or recognition of inherent worth of a person; the value of human life. Noting that each human has potential for a peaceful, loving life, we train our minds to see only good in people or the value of their living. What we think, so we become. If we think evil, we become evil, if we think good we become good. The knowledge of Living Values help us to focus our minds on the potential or positive side and worth of humanness.
Focusing on reaffirming faith in the dignity and worth of the human person, the individual can uncover a capacity to stretch his mind beyond the limits of the current reality and recognizes his or her full potential not only in relation to self but also to others. A person who really understands his or her own inherent worth and respects that of others will come to know that worth is not something assigned by external forces, but rather comes from a source that is universal. Living Values education helps us to touch the source, guiding the learner toward a more profound understanding of the true nature of self worth, the uniqueness and the dignity of man, created or made by one God for a purpose on earth.
1.03 CONCERNS ABOUT ETHICS AND VALUES
Growing number of educators around the globe and various governmental and nongovernmental organizations have been working on ways to introduce values-
based education, this is in response to the increase in all societies of violence, suicide, various forms of addiction, and child abuse. There is an increasing recognition that there is a missing dimension in the educational system around the world, which is the lack of focus on the affective domain skills development.
Mr. Jaques Delors Report: Learning; The Teasure Within Cities; the fundamental role of education in personal and social development and the necessity of building the awareness and ability to operate within the humanistic values we all share. This report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century by Jacques Delors and other leading educators served to invigorate a debate on the future of education, the report was the idea of Prof. Federico Mayor, director - general of UNESCO who strongly believed in education as means of creating peace and International understanding.
A UNESCO conference in Australia in march of 1998 was organized around four pillars: learning: to do, learning to know, learning to live together, and learning to be. While the first two are quite expected in the field of education, the later two are not. They were explored as a result of the work of the Commission and its concern with crises of social cohesion. We must also "Learn to Be" and "Learn to Live together. Lifelong learning and the rekindling of the Humanistic values was a focus for educators gathered from around the world.
The United Nations is a universal International Organization created to maintain world peace and security and to work for social progress. United Nations is a forum for all Nations, represents the highest aspirations of the world people for a world free of war, poverty, repression and suffering. The Universal Principles of the United Nations charter - faith in fundamental human rights, social progress, peace and development, these values and concepts have remained as valid to day as when they were enshrined many years ago. The United Nations is a success story of the value of cooperation.
In values-based education, the child is recognized as an individual, a whole person who functions as a complete being with other beings. Each aspect of personality is linked with another; the cognitive domain cannot be separated from the effective domain. The living values educational programme provides tools for educators to introduce a values- based educational approach.
scores and problems with today's youth. The negative view is such a contrast to the picture that is seen in reality. We see dedicated educators, working hard at school, caring for students, striving to motivate and teach. We see teachers as those who continually respond to the needs of youth and the needs of the society. Yet, there has been a tremendous difference in the last 20 to 30 years in terms of overall student attitudes and behaviour. The difference is not in the determination of professionalism, nor the care of teachers; the difference is in the preparation of children who enter the school system at the state of our society.
In recent years, two trends have especially increased the challenges of raising and educating children, growing materialism and violence in films. These have greatly impacted on families , diverting time and focus always from traditional pastimes and the transmission of cultural and spiritual values. There is profound influence of violence in films on youth. And for many children, there is far more time in front of the television than in front of their parents. One parent recently said that the American Basketball star, Michael Jordan, had more effect on his children's values than he did! More than four hours of television a day actually diminishes the development of children's psychomotor, language, and social skills.
Values have traditionally been transmitted by parents and the communities within a society. The call for values in education is actually once again asking educators to be heroes - to fill the void within society. The call is asking educators to be leaders in recognizing that technology and materialism is not enough. As we start the 21st Century, I feel we must rap into the creative energy and universal values that each human being holds within. Not only must we renew efforts to educate our children, parents and ourselves, but also to utilize our hopes and dreams for children and the world to provide the emotional impetus. As educators we have the power to facilitate the development of universal values - to reconnect with the values of our culture(s) and the universal values that unite us all.
Living values: an education programme provides a means for educators around the world to collaborate - creating, sharing and dialoguing as they introduce a whole series of value-based educational experiences. This cooperative partnership has produced positive results in a variety of educational settings. The proposals are based on different types of contributions. Some are reflections, others are activities within school curricula and other educational contexts. Each explores optimizing educational action that have values at their core. Some of these ideas create situations of simultaneous teaching and learning where values become tools for building, sharing and integrating - where learning is effective and an expression of what we believe in and what we live for.
This programme provides an important alternative that allows children and young adults to explore and understand values while immersed in their daily school experience. In this process, it is vital to understand the underlying idea. There is understanding that each human being has the potential for peaceful, loving, attitudes and actions. When we as educators create open, flexible, creative, and yet orderly values-based environments, students will naturally move closer to understanding their own values and develop their own way of thinking. Children and young adults can perceive, understand, and act in a way that promotes peace, justice and respect for diversity. This program does promote a vision of a world free of exclusions, a vision of respect and dignity for each person and culture.
In the globalised world, and the myriad forces and trends within it, are putting pressure as never before on individuals, society and social structures and systems. Amongst others, educationalists worldwide are tackling the challenges of preparing the next generation for a world that is not only very different from the one they grew up in but is also in many ways less safe, secure and caring. Each day brings news of events somewhere in the world - if not in our neighbourhood - that highlight a lack of personal, moral and social values. So it is heartening that educationalists are seeking to address this crises in our social fabric with education programmes and materials such Living Values.
Yet notwithstanding the clear need for a renaissance of values within society, there are some who resist such moves. Perhaps this sensitivity - or even reluctance sometime to touch the topic at all - indicates an awareness of its complexity but also the importance of an issue that touches the fundamentals of human life and the very spirit of our being. For values relate to who we are and how we choose to live and let live.
And it is an understandable reluctance, given for example, the attempts over the years of some individuals and institutions to insist that others share the values they endorse. For no matter how well-intentioned such efforts may be, such imposition on others amounts to a moral bullying that fails to recognize and respect the individuality of others and their right, and ability , judge for themselves and form their own opinions, beliefs and values.
But if the dangers of dogmatic indoctrination, or absolutism, are apparent, so are the pitfalls of a cultural relativism that suggests that anything goes and that there is no such things as right and wrong, good and bad, when it comes to values and value choices. Is there an alternative to such extremes, or to inaction based on awareness of the risks they involve? Is it possible, without creating polarities of constructive and responsible and leading to more desirable consequences than others? Living Values attempts to offer a viable alternative to the troubled routes of extremes or inaction while also indicating a way forward with regard to the latter question. Thus while some may feel that to speak of certain values as being universal is presumptuous, it is certainly possible to identify values which attract very widespread endorsement and acceptance.
We live in a fast changing world - peaceless, restless, friendless, often ugly, sometimes volatile, and almost always unhappy. Indeed, it seems from our daily fare of news around Kenya, Africa, and the rest of the world that there is hardly any good news. Our headlines are dominated by personal violence, drug abuse, marital conflicts, poverty and the arrogance of power. In this atmosphere families bring up their children, uncertain of their future prospects; schools battle children and sometimes their teachers, on matters they fail to resolve amicably in their own school environment; and citizens watch as they see the traditional citadels of psychic peace moral values, the churches, temples and synagogues, gradually dissolving into internecine bickering and doctrinaire conflicts.
Yet, the school, catering for our children up to the age of 18 or thereabouts, has become in reality the agent of the contemporary society for providing learning prospects, the inculcation of eternal values for lifelong living, and the demonstration of the power of communal life and teamwork at this young age.
From what we can perceive from real-life evidence of the situation of our schools, and the statistics of the performance in society of our graduates, as well as the practical evidence of a large and swelling roll of dropouts, the transformational mission of the school system is not being fulfilled. It was a primary target of the subjects of "Social Studies and Ethics" and "Religious Knowledge" in our school curriculum to provide a foundation upon which an integrated, self-aware, self-confident, socially-cooperative young personality can emerge to being an adult life, in whatever capacity, in an assured, positive frame of mind.
Kenya just as all other countries of the world do, need to develop a new thrust to address this crisis in a practical, real-life situation within the school in close collaboration with the parents of the children - and to do so without overloading the curriculum and co-curricular activities.
2.0 LEARNING OF HUMAN VALUES
There is a great deal of anxiety among some educationist that our rapid progress in control and adoption of our material world has not been marched by corresponding advances in the development of human character, and/or values. Many observe that moral values are disintegrating on all fronts, in both public and personal life.
The very survival of our society and the world in general, depends upon a widespread renewal of individual commitment to an active moral life. Human kind must rediscover his values and recapture a feeling of dedication to noble ideals. The Living Values educational programme is founded in the belief that such a renewal is possible. Teaching of Living Values encompass a developmental -Vision of human potential that the pursuit of the divine values will lead to right action from the individual and this will promote a better world to live in.
2.01 HUMAN VALUES IN THE MIND
We are endowed with five (5) senses in our brain. Our eyes use light, which is an electromagnetic energy to see the material world. Our ears are sensitive to many gases in the air. We taste substances with our tongues and underneath our skin are thousands of nerve ends which tell us when we come into contact with other things.
2.02 CONSCIOUS MIND
It is our conscious mind that registers impressions relayed through one or more of the five senses. When we see or hear something, or one of our other senses has message to pass to us. It is the conscious mind that interprets the information. Good Ethical or moral behaviour is something to do with how we use our bodies positively. It is these positive actions that we perform, result from thoughts coming from our conscious mind.
The most important sense organs are eyes, and ears, it is through these organs that most of our learning process is achieved and these learning achievements determine our behaviours. When the conscious mind receives information from one of the senses, it immediately sends the message through the nervous system to the subconscious mind, the information is stored in the sub-conscious mind. There are millions of impressions from our past experiences, a whole life time of events, good or bad which are in the sub-conscious mind. The sub-conscious mind stores the information and then compares the message it has received from the conscious mind with other information or impressions stored there. If the first impression are favourable; positive response will result. If the past impressions are not positive; a negative response will be passed back to the conscious mind.
Our sub-conscious minds are full of positive and negative emotions. One moment we are happy but the next moment we are unhappy or depressed. The answer is to try to iron out the high and the lows so that we attain even - mindedness. If we obtain peace within, we shall be able to control our emotions. Self-control can be achieved, when we have peace within, inner calm will prevent an emotional reaction from the sub-conscious mind, from affecting our conscious mind.
2.03 SUPPER CONSCIOUS MIND
The supper conscious mind is the home of our intuitions, the understanding of our humanness, our conscience, our inbuilt feelings about what is right and what is wrong. It is our connection with the divine. It is a part of our personality that is under-developed in most people, although generally women's intuitive powers are more developed than the male of our species. If we are to raise the consciousness of the human race, we have to work on bringing the supper conscious mind into play in our daily life.
Most of scientific discoveries and innovations have been made not through concentration of the logical powers of the conscious mind, either by sitting with paper and pencil or a computer, but when the supper conscious mind or the Higher mind is engaged, when the conscious mind is still and peaceful. The famous example of this truth, was the discovery of the laws of gravity by Sir Isaac Newton. He had worked long hours on the problem, but it was not until he was sitting quietly in the garden and an apple fell from the tree that he suddenly understood the laws governing the movement of bodies in the universe.
By calming our conscious minds and seeking to raise our awareness, putting us in-touch with our supper conscious mind, we can discover the truth about our selves and about our place in this worldly drama. William Shakespeare said 'No man is an island", each one of us is an integrated part of the universe. The divine energy that sustains us is the same energy that pulsates through all life. We cannot exist in isolation from our environment. Everything we think, speak or do has an effect on others around us. When we are peaceful, loving people, we feel that peace and love radiating to us, on the other hand if we are close to someone who is angry or full of negativity we shall be disturbed by his vibrations.
Some educational psychologists, used to talk about instinctive behaviour, but many studies have shown that there is no human behaviour that does not rely on interaction with the surrounding environment i.e. family (home) community, school and the society. (Marshall S.T, Educational Psychology) During the first decades of the last century, the concept of instinctive or innate behaviours was rejected by many of the early educational psychologists. On scientific grounds.
It was realised that the innate behaviour of man (i.e. the behaviour that is present at birth and that interacts with learning environment through life.) did not achieve prominence until early recently through studies of early behaviour in human babies and social behaviour in adults. This means that learning is necessary in order to achieve the appropriate or desired behaviour in humans.
It has been established by educational Psychologists that human modes of thinking, acting (attitudes) and interest are acquired , learned and developed during early life or school days. These acquired, learned and developed behaviours may become permanent remaining effective and observable during the persons life time. These attitudes and interests, influence lives of individuals and determines, what a man says in particular situations, what he enjoys or dislikes, his approach to other people. Attitudes and interests provide patterns of behaviour.
Inculcating attitudes and interests and aiding their growth is an important part of education. The home, the family, the community, the school and the wider society, all have their part to play in the inculcation of attitudes and interests, If the society has to remain stable, then there has to be some consistency of attitudes and interests and behaviour required from generation to generation. Kelman (1962) took the view that if a person could be induced to act in some particular way, then there was a possibility that he would change his opinions so as to bring his opinions into line with his actions.
2.05 THE POWER OF THOUGHTS
When motives are based on right values, in accord with fundamental and natural laws, we think, speak and act in ways which guarantee success, accomplishment and peace of mind.
To some degree or another, we have all experienced delivering a message we did not truly believe or becoming part of a gossip session against our inner-most wishes or doing or saying something which did not support our values. And whether the reason was to be politically, socially, or culturally correct, to avoid hurting our selves or someone else, to fulfill others expectations of us, or to say or do it because we felt like it; such impure or untrue thoughts, words or actions have an effect on someone concerned.
We experience consequences not only as disharmony and conflict within but also in connections and relationships. Stress increases, peace decreases, and the world become less a better place. By aligning thoughts, word and actions with universal and divine principles governing human nature and conduct, will automatically reduce tension, because we are operating from a pure place. When motive are based on right values in accord with those fundamental and natural laws, we think speak and act in ways which guarantee success, accomplishment and peace of mind. There are natural and spiritual laws and the knowledge of such truths exist at the core of each human soul, they are concepts such as fairness and patience, honesty, integrity, benevolence, respect, accuracy, and flexibility and the divine virtues which are part of our highest potential. While individuals may practice these principles in varying degrees or may disagree on how such truths can be manifested, there is universal agreement that such laws exist.
Change begins with the individual consciousness. To take personal responsibility for one's thoughts, words, and actions is to take control of the driving wheel and set the process of change in motion. The individual would steer thoughts in accurate and worth while directions, would apply brakes to hurtful words before they are emitted, would know when to stop the motion and avoid hurting some one else.
Negative intentions among others include proving oneself right by suppressing others, manipulating others, expecting respect from others with out giving respect to them, being dependent on others due to incompleteness, or insecurity within. Some of these motives, are grossly apparent to the self or to others. Some intentions may be hidden to the self and require deep examinations to be pinpointed, understood and changed.
Positive intentions on the other hand, can be recognized when the individual naturally and automatically gives respect and benefits to others. Sees uniqueness and positive qualities in each person, and gives people the freedom to be themselves. Even when one must say something to others which may be perceived as bitter medicine as when giving feedback on in appropriate behaviour or about something which may affect someone's life - the words should be said directly and honestly, with humility and with regard for the sensitivities of the other. When the recipient of feedback is treated with dignity and respect, is listened to with empathy and is involved in decisions about change, the discussion can be experienced as positive, opening doors to opportunity and giving that person the power of attainment. Positive intentions encourage the instrument or the giver of feedback to remain clean and up front even when delivering a delicate message. It is important to note that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction (Sir Isaac Newton's Laws of motion)
When one re-discovers and practices his/her innermost values the value principles you choose will determine the direction of your life, at every step you make value judgments, it will be according to the priority you have placed in certain values identifying and choosing and your practicing values, will clarify what you stand in life.
2.06 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE INTERPERSONAL DIMENSION
Placing the Interpersonal Dimension at the hub of the wheel underpins the understanding that:
* All actions emanate from ourselves, whether bodily, environmental, logical, musical, interpersonal, verbal, or visual.
* We all have the capacity to develop in each of the dimensions to varying degrees of success according to effort and opportunity.
* All learning, thinking, and actions begin with a thought in ourselves and are owned by ourselves.
* Time to be still within ourselves, to chum over ideas and reflect, is just as important as being practically active.
* The love of learning, love of ones subject, the pursuit of happiness, and the love of humanity begins within ourselves.
* The door to new eras of opportunity and future possibilities hinges on understanding ourselves, and
* At the heart of all learning is the capacity to understand and develop our core qualities so that we can relate to one another with decency, honesty, mutual respect, responsibility, and tolerance.
The model offers the opportunity for each individual to develop according to his or her own capacity, effort, and preferred learning style where all dimensions and avenues of knowledge are given equal value and equal weighting on all spokes as well as the hub.
As the person recognizes and develops his or her unique qualities and spirituality, so too, will be the knowledge at the very center of one's own interpersonal wheel intensify and radiate into an ever-shining living example of how to unlock and fulfill one's potential through thought, word, skill, and talent. Living Values: An Educational Programme opens the door of understanding and offers personal strategies for action in the interpersonal dimension of learning.
One of many models to help identify human qualities and human potential is Howard Gardeners Multiple Intelligence's. The model suggest that there are eight interrelated dimensions of learning that help identify skills, abilities and behaviours in us all. They are: -
* The body/kinesthetic dimension; as related to physical movement and sports.
* The environmental/Ethical dimension; as related to our relationships and caring for the living environment.
* The Logical/Mathematics dimensions; as related to logical and abstract reasoning skills.
* The Interpersonal dimension; as related to person to person relationships and communication.
* The Interpersonal dimension; as related to self-reflection, how we think and awareness of our physical, mental, spiritual and social status.
2.07 DIVINE VIRTUES/VALUES
Divine virtues are those qualities, which are universally recognized as supremely good.
SOME OF DIVINE VALUES
We have the freedom to choose our
behaviour. We can be the ones whose
behaviours come under the influence of
the atmosphere. By modeling virtues,
exercising powers, and letting innermost
values guide us, we become the
embodiment of those virtues, powers,
and values. In other words, by
demonstrating those positive attributes
and beliefs through our behaviours, we
feel that experience within and serve as
an example to others. The greatest
authority is experience, as that has the
capacity to effect others, which, in turn,
can subtly influence the atmosphere in a
Some of the Divine Virtues are listed
below Followed by the negative values
which should be avoided
2.08 NEGATIVE VALUES/VICES
Excessive use of power
Destruction of natural resources i.e.
trees forests and soil
Pollution of water, seas, rivers, lakes
Pollution of air
Wrongful disposal of hazard wastes
Excessive Acquisition of wealth
Accumulation of wealth
3.0 LIVING VALUES
An orphaned child feels insecure, unloved, and unwanted. A person without a life of values feels the same. Values are our parents. The human soul is nurtured by the values it holds; a sense of security and comfort comes through values in one's life. A life filled with values is a life of self-
respect and dignity.
Values are the treasures of life, making humans feel enriched. Values are friends, bringing happiness in life. The soul develops the ability to discern truth , and to follow the path of truth. Values thus bringing independence and freedom. They expand the capacity to be self-sufficient and liberate one from external influences.
Values offer a person protection and one who experiences this is able to share this protection with others. Values bring empowerment, and it becomes possible to remove weaknesses and defects. As the innate goodness of the individual concentrated on values, the link with God becomes stronger and clearer. Service is then rendered to others through thoughts, words, and actions, but remains stable in the unlimited. Values open heart and transforms human nature so life is filled with compassion and humility.
3.01 HIERARCHY OF 12 CORE VALUES
There is universal recognition of a hierarchy of values which ascends from the lower material values to those higher spiritual values such as peace, love, care, selflessness, and generosity. Such higher order values transcend the uniqueness of humanity's richly diverse cultural, philosophical, and social heritage, forming a common bedrock on which to build not only friendly international relations but also mutual benefit in one-on-one interactions.
The 12 higher values are described as, Cooperation, Freedom, Happiness, Honesty,Humility, Love, Peace, Respect, Responsibility, Simplicity, Tolerance and Unity - they are core values, fundamental to the well being of humanity as a whole. They will touch the core of the individual, perhaps inspiring positive change which can contribute to world transformation. The world will automatically become a better place when each individual becomes a better person.
3.02 LIVING VALUES MESSAGE
The Living Values Message is for the Individual, as well as the collective, to find the way back to the original divine roots through;
i) The process of learning, and
u) The conscious exercises of Choices; Such a process and exercise embraces the real meaning and purpose of spiritual, ethical and moral education.
3.03 LIVING VALUES BASED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMME
This Living Values Based Educational Programme seeks to promote peace, freedom and democracy of both the individual and the society, through the learning of tolerance, integrity, respect for each other, and a responsibility to one another. We all cherish a world where there is happiness, honesty, love and humility; we seek co-operation between the races and the faiths, so that we can build a sense of unity. As the United Nations plaque says, "To the glory of God and in the prayer for peace on earth
The United Nations, reaffirmed its faith in fundamental human Rights ,The dignity and the worth of human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of all nations large and small. At the birth of the United Nations in Francisco in the United States of America on 26th June 1945, the organisation declared to:
Practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors .
Unite (Unity) their strength to maintain international peace and security.
All these declarations were made in the charter of United Nations the preamble is shown on page 17 of this paper. The value of Peace, Love, Respect and Unity is paramount for us to gain happiness and live as one nation.
3.04 PREAMBLE, CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS
WITH THE PEOPLES
OF THE UNITED NATIONS
> To save succeeding generation from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
> To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
> To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
> To promote social progress and better standards of life in large freedom,
AND FOR THESE ENDS
> To practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
> To unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
> To ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
> To employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples.
> Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the City of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
Signed on June 26, 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization.
Living Values - in adopting the tenet in the Preamble of the Charter of the United Nation - focuses on reaffirming faith in the dignity and worth of the human person. Within that active growth process, the individual can uncover a capacity to stretch beyond the limits of current reality and recognize his or her full potential, not only in relation to the self but also to the wider world,
Human dignity is the external expression of an internal state of Self-
worth. A person who really understands his or her own inherent worth and respects that of others will come to know that worth is not something assigned by external sources, but rather, comes from a source that is universal and eternal. Living Values helps touch that source, guiding the reader toward a more profound understanding of the true nature of the self. That nation, of course, has been the object of much contemplation and discussion, but at its essence is the dignity and worth of the individual and the sacredness or divine nature of human life. With such at the core of Living Values, the message throughout is for the individual and the collective to find the way back to original divine roots through a process of learning and the conscious exercise of choice. Such a process embraces the real meaning and purpose of spiritual and moral education: not to impose an ideology of particular set of values, but rather, to draw out or to educe the best from within the individual. At the same time, a complementary structure would need to be created to allow for ample expression of such living values.
In choosing or becoming aware of values we adopt as the motivations for our behaviours, we assign worth or importance to an aspect of life, which, in turn, influences how we approach life. Today, the majority of people are largely influenced and define their true worth by material values such as social position, monetary worth, external appearance, or personal possessions. That misrepresentation of the source of true worth creates cultures of accumulation, possessiveness, selfishness, and greed and is the root cause of conflict, exploitation, poverty, and tension in the world.
These Values do not belong to any one religion, race or nationality. They are universal. All the great masters who ever lived taught love and compassion. They exhorted their followers to live noble lives, to follow a codes of conduct and to live in peace with their neighbours. Human Values are what make us human. They are inherent in all human beings, deep down inside every one of us. If we do not act in accordance with these Values, we should not call ourselves Human. Animals live by instinct. In everything they do, they are driven by a force, which they do not question. This instinct drives them to find food and shelter, to procreate. They cannot rise above this instinct.
Human beings, on the other hand, have the ability to question, to make choices. We make decisions many times a day. These decisions not only effect us but other people as well. All human beings are basically good but sometimes we behave in way contrary to our humanness. It is for this reason that we need to reconnect with our inner selves by re-establishing Values in our lives.
Most people would agree that the world today is in a sorry state. Despite the advances in Science and Technology and in spite of the fact that we as a race and we are more educated now than ever before, peace and happiness have eluded us. Selfishness is rife, the family unit is breaking down, nations fight nations, there is racial and religious intolerance's, crime and violence is on the rise everywhere, television video games are poisoning the minds of our children, there is widespread corruption in the society, the safety and habitability of our planet is under threat from environmental pollution, scientists are playing God by tampering with the building blocks of life in the midst of all this, millions of our brothers and sisters are living in dire poverty.
Modern education concentrates on the mind or intellectual developments and, to lesser extent, on the whole person but gives little attention to the spirit. Our education systems have ignored the fact we are made up of physical, spiritual, mental and social dimensions. Education should develop holistic personality rather our mental or cognitive domain. Students' heads are filled with more and more facts, most of which are forgotten soon after leaving school. Children are groomed to pass examinations so that, in this highly competitive world, they can secure jobs. Such things as respect of teachers and parents, concern for the welfare of Society and love for our world are neglected
In a world ravaged by contradictions, indignities and gross denials of our very humanity, human rights - and corresponding responsibilities - are increasingly clamouring for attention on the agendas of people of all walks of life the world over. Recent years have also seen ever-greater recognition of the place that must be accorded to values at the heart of the individual, of society, our learning and life. The implications of all this for educators are immense and lay before them a tremendous challenge.
Education fails if its outcome is an individual who is intelligent, skilled and knowledgeable but unable to live, work and get on with others. We must not just learn about respect and understanding but to be respectful and understanding others and their rights and freedom.
In this context, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights offers us a timely reminder of the fundamental human standards which we all want, and need, to live by. Its simple truths constitute a basic blueprint for daily life, reminding us of fundamental rights but also responsibilities. Recognition of these rights and responsibilities is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.
The vision of what we want to achieve - the universal observance of these fundamental rights and freedoms - is clear. It is a vision that has now been endorsed by governments, championed by organizations and claimed by individuals worldwide. And yet notwithstanding the universality of the Declaration, its standards are often relegated to the back - seat of social progress, leaving exploitation, violence and injustice to prevail in one form or another. It is as if the link between aspiration and action, between principle and practice, has been severed, exposing a gap between what we believe and accept as correct and what we actually do.
This raises the question of which we are unable to do and that which we want to do: to implement clear and cherished aspirations that make for a better quality of life for all. The aspirations may be high but are they really beyond our reach? They are certainly not physically or financially impossible and they have widespread political acceptance; they embody a way of life, and values, which we all believe in and identify with. So how can we implement the values that make up the common standards of achievements set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Education must undeniably be at the heart of our efforts in this regard, along with other components of such education, it is suggested that there should be a greater focus on the value system that is the framework around which the Declaration has been Grafted. We cannot truly understand rights and responsibilities without first understanding the values on which they are based.
True quality education must help individuals identify, and adopt, personal and social values that they can call on to guide the decisions they make, their relationships, work and life as a whole. It must help them develop a depth of character and a clear sense of their own identity, integrity and what they believe to be important in life. We must learn about the values that will guide us towards desirable, fulfilling and worthwhile outcomes in our actions and daily life as individuals in our own rights, the masters of our own selves, but also as citizens of the world community.
Given the universality of human values and rights, it follows that education can no longer limit itself, whether by content, gender bias or age cut-off, must transcend these frontiers. Education must become an inclusive, universal, lifelong learning process that embraces the family and community, as well as the classrooms places of learning. In a world where rights are too often abused, leading to poverty, deprivation and insecurity of many kinds, the maximization of all inner personal resources is essential. A values-based and rights-based approach to education requires that all within society are engaged in learning, for themselves and others -a true learning society.
We must learn, and keep learning, about the rights we have as individuals but also about the responsibilities that we go with them. To do so effectively, we must embrace the values that are the building blocks and the very essence of rights and responsibilities
Yet notwithstanding the clear need for a renaissance of values within society, there are some who resist such moves. Perhaps this sensitivity - or even reluctance sometimes to touch the topic at all - indicates not just an awareness of its complexity but also the importance of an issue that touches the fundamentals of human life and the very spirit of our being. For values relate to who we are and how we choose to live and let live.
And it is an understandable reluctance, given, for example, the attempts over the years of some individuals and institutions to insist that others adopt the values they endorse. For no matter how well-intentioned such efforts may be, such imposition on others amounts to a moral bullying that fails to recognize and respect the individuality of others and their right, and ability, to judge for themselves and form their own opinions, beliefs and values.
3.05 PURPOSE OF LIVING VALUES EDUCATION PROGRAMME
To provide guiding principles and tools for development of the whole person, recognizing that the individual is comprised of physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual dimensions. All these human dimensions need to be developed in a holistic manner to achieve the desired behaviours. The educators must recognize the our pillars of education as recommended by the Delors Report, i.e. learning to know, learning to be, learning to do and learning to live together, thus all aspects of Cognitive, Psychomotor and affective domains.
> To help individual think about and reflect on different values and the practical
implications of expressing them in relation to themselves, others, the
community, and the world at large. > To deepen understanding, motivation, and responsibility with regard to making
positive personal and social choices.
> To inspire individuals to choose their own personal, social, moral, and spiritual
values and be aware of practical methods for developing and deepening them;
> To encourage educators and caregivers to look at education as providing
students with a philosophy of living, thereby facilitating their overall growth,
development, and choices so they may integrate themselves into the community
with respect, confidence , and purpose.
(ii) Three Core Assumptions
> Universal values teach respect and dignity for each and every person. Learning
to enjoy those values promotes well-being for individuals and the larger society.
> Each student care about values and has the capacity to positively create and
learn when provided with opportunities.
> Students thrive in a values-based atmosphere in a positive, safe environment of
mutual respect as capable of learning to make socially conscious choices.
3.06 LIVING VALUES OUTREACH
Living Values Educational Programme is meant to provide the guiding principles and tools for the development of the whole person and has been conceived by Global Educators in consultation with Representatives from UNICEF's Education Cluster and the Brahma Kumaris. The living Values is a product of the Outreach Phase of the Project "Sharing of values for a better world" launched by the Brahama Kumari World Spiritual University (BKWSU), in September, 1996 in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the United Nations. From that Project was produced "Living Values: guidebook" which has been translated into 7 languages and has been a catalyst for this World - World Project "Living Values: an Educational Programme 740 different sites in 71 different countries have received the Living Values Educational Programme in their schools and institutions. Some foreign countries have fully integrated the Living Values in their Schools' Curriculum - an example being the Mauritius which is committed to pursuing and promoting this important neglected dimension in Education.
4.0 LIVING VALUES STATEMENTS
* People want the freedom to lead a life of purpose, to select freely a lifestyle in which they and their children can grow healthily and can flourish through the work of their hands, heads and hearts.
* Freedom can be understood mistakenly to be a vast and unlimited umbrella, which gives permission to "do what I like, when I like, to whomever I like." That concept is misleading and a misuse of choice.
* True freedom is exercised and experienced when parameters are defined and understood. Parameters are determined by the principle that everyone has equally the same rights. For example, the rights to peace, happiness, and justice regardless of religion, culture, or gender -are innate.
* To violate the rights of one or more in order to free the self, family, or nation is a misuse of freedom. That kind of misuse usually backfires, eventually imposing a condition of constraint, and in some cases, oppression - for the violated and the violator.
* Full freedom functions only when rights are balanced with responsibilities and choice is balanced with conscience.
* Inner freedom is to be free from confusion and complications within the mind, intellect, and heart that arise from negativity.
* Freedom is an ongoing process. How can we create and maintain it?
* Self-transformation begins the process of world transformation. The world will not be free from war and injustice until individuals themselves are set free.
* The most potent power to put an end to internal and external wars - and to set souls free - is the human conscious. Any act of freedom, when aligned with human conscience is liberating, empowering, and enabling.
* Peace is more than the absence of war.
* Peace begins within each one of us.
* Peace is an energy, a qualitative energy, it is a pure force that penetrates the shell of chaos, and by its very nature automatically puts things and people into balanced order.
* The self is a reservoir of vital resources, one of which is peace.
* Peace is inner silence filled with the power of truth.
* Peace consists of pure thoughts, pure feelings, and pure wishes.
* To stay peaceful requires strength and compassion.
* Are human beings by nature violent or non-violent?
* Authenticity of action depends on authenticity of persons
* Peace is the prominent characteristic of what we call " a civilized society."
* Serenity is not the absence of chaos, but peace in the midst of it.
* Every human being has innate worth.
* Part of self-respect is knowing my own qualities.
* Respect for the self is the seed that gives growth to confidence.
* When we have respect for the self, it is easy to have respect for others.
* To know one's natural worth and to honuor the worth of others is the true way to earn respect.
* Those who give respect will receive respect.
* In a better world, the natural law is love.
* When there is lots of love inside, anger runs away.
* Universal love holds no boundaries or preferences; love emanates to all.
* Love is not simply a desire, a passion, an intense feeling for one person or object, but a consciousness which is simultaneously selfless and self-
* Love is caring.
* Love is sharing.
* Love is being kind.
* Love makes me feel safe.
* Love means I want what is good for others.
* Love can be for one's country , for cherished aim, for truth, for justice , for ethics, for people, for natures.
* Love is the principle which creates and sustains human relations with dignity and depth.
* Love is the basis for a belief in equality and goodwill towards all.
* Love is catalyst for change, development, and achievement.
* Love is viewing each one as more beautiful than the next.
* Real love ensures kindness, caring, and understanding and removes jealousy and controlling behaviors.
* Give happiness and take happiness.
* When there is a feeling of hope, their is happiness.
* Having good wishes for everyone gives happiness inside.
* Happiness naturally comes with pure and selfless actions
* When one is content with the self, happiness come automatically.
* Happiness of mind is a state of peace in which there is no upheaval or violence.
* The warmth and comfort of happiness is hidden within the self.
* When my words "give flowers instead of thorns," I create a happier world.
* Happiness follows giving happiness, sorrow follows giving sorrow.
* Happiness cannot be bought, sold, or bargained for.
* Awareness and application of universal truths provide a true source of happiness.
* Honesty is telling the truth.
* When I am honest, I feel clear inside.
* A person worthy of confidence is honest and true.
* Honest means there are no contractions or discrepancies in thoughts, words, or actions.
* Honest thoughts, words, and actions create harmony.
* Honesty is the awareness of what is right and appropriate in one's role, one's behaviour, and one's relationship.
* With honesty, there is no hypocrisy or artificiality which create confusion and mistrust in the minds and lives of others.
* Honesty makes for a life of integrity because the inner and outer selves are a mirror image.
* Honesty is to use well what has been entrusted to you.
* There is a deep relationship between honesty and friendship.
* Greed is sometimes at the root of dishonesty.
* There is enough for man's need, but not enough for man's greed.
* An honest person knows that we are all interconnected.
* To be honest to one's real self and to the purpose of a task earns trust and inspires faith in others.
* Humility is based on self-respect.
* Humility removes insecurity and allows acceptance of the self.
* A person with humility will listen to and accept others.
* Humility is staying stable and maintaining power on the inside and not needing to control others on the outside.
* Humility is to let go and let be.
* Humility eliminates possessiveness and narrow vision which builds walls of arrogance.
One word spoken in humility has the significance of a thousand words. Humility allows one to be great in the ears of others. Humility creates an open mind and recognition of the strengths of the self and others. Arrogance damages or destroys valuing the uniqueness of others, and hence is a subtle violation of their fundamental rights. The tendency to impress, dominate, or limit the freedom of others in order to prove yourself actually diminishes the inner experience of worth, dignity, and peace of mind.
* Responsibility is doing your share.
* Responsibility is accepting what is required and carrying out the task to the best
* of your ability.
* A responsible person fulfills the assigned duty by staying true to the aim.
* Duties are carried out with integrity and a sense of purpose.
* If we want peace, we have the responsibility to be peaceful.
* If we want a clean world, we have the responsibility to care for nature.
* When one is responsible, there is the contentment of having made a
* As a responsible person, I have something worthwhile to offer - and so do
* A responsible person knows how to be fair, seeing that each gets a share.
* With rights there are responsibilities.
* Responsibility is not only something that obliges us, but is also something that
* allows us to achieve what we wish.
* Each person can perceive her or his own world' and look for the balance of
* rights and responsibilities.
* Global responsibility requires respect for all human beings.
* Simplicity is natural.
* Simplicity is learning from the earth.
* Simplicity is beautiful.
* Simplicity is relaxing.
* Simplicity is staying in the present and not making things complicated.
* Simplicity is staying in the present and not making things complicated.
* Simplicity is enjoying a plain mind and intellect.
* Simplicity teaches us economy - how to use our resources keeping future generation in mind.
* Simplicity is giving patience, friendship, and encouragement.
* Simplicity is appreciating the small things in life.
* Peace is the goal, tolerance is the method.
* Tolerance is being open and receptive to the beauty of differences.
* Tolerance recognizes individuality and diversity while removing divisive masks and defusing tension created by ignorance. It provides the opportunity to discover and remove stereotypes and stigmas associated with people perceived to be different because of nationality, religion, or heritage.
* Tolerance is mutual respect through mutual understanding.
* The seeds of intolerance are fear and ignorance.
* The seed of tolerance is love; its water is compassion and care.
* Where there is lack of love, there is lack of tolerance.
* Those who know how to appreciate the good in people and situations have tolerance.
* Tolerance is also an ability to face difficult situations.
* To tolerate life's inconveniences is to let go, be light, make others light, and move on.
* Through understanding and open-mindedness, a tolerant person attracts someone different, and by genuinely accepting and accommodating that person, demonstrates tolerance in a practical way. As a result, relationships bloom.
* Cooperation exists when people work together toward a common goal.
* Cooperation requires recognizing the value of everyone's part and keeping a positive attitude.
* One who cooperates creates good wishes and pure feelings for others and the task.
* When cooperating, there is a need to know what is needed. Sometimes we need an idea, sometimes we need to let go of our idea. Sometimes we need to lead and sometimes to follow.
* Cooperation is governed by the principle of mutual respect.
* One who cooperates receives cooperation.
* Where there is love there is cooperation.
* By staying aware of my value, I can give cooperation.
* Courage, consideration, caring, and sharing provide a foundation for cooperation.
* Unity is harmony within and among individuals in the group.
* Unity continues by accepting and appreciating each person and his or her contribution.
* Unity is built from a shared goal, hope ,or vision.
* Unity makes big tasks seem easy.
* The greatness of unity is that everyone is respected.
* One note of disrespect can cause unity to be broken.
* Unity creates the experience of cooperation, increases enthusiasm for the task, makes the atmosphere enabling.
* Unity creates a sense of belonging and increases well -being for all.
4.13 GLOBAL VISION OF A BETTER WORLD
In a Better World :-
* All people celebrate the joy of life.
* Human Rights are respected and upheld and the dignity and integrity of all people is assured.
* People live in ways that preserve natures ecological balance in an environment that is beautiful and clean.
* The planet's natural and abundant resources are shared equitably and the basic human needs of all people are provided for.
* All people have equal opportunities to realize their potential through an educational process that has human, moral and spiritual values at its heart.
* Life within the immediate family is loving, caring and fulfilling and is the foundation for harmony within the broader human family.
* There is respect, understanding and tolerance in all human relations.
* People communicate openly and in a spirit of equality and goodwill
* Social, economic and political justice is ensured through honesty responsibility and respect for the rule of law.
* Governments, as representative of their people, are committed to their well-being. People participate co-operatively in efforts for a secure and peaceful world.
* Science serves humanity and appropriate technology is applied to ensure sustainable development and enhance the quality of life.
* All people enjoy freedom of expression, movement and belief while respecting the liberties and rights of others.
Source: The Global Vision Statement is excepted from Vision of a Setter World, a UN Peace Messenger Publication, Copyright ? 1993 by Brahma Kumaris World Spititual University (UK), ISBN 0-9637396-8-9.
5.0 THE ROLE OF ETHICS IN A CONSTITUTION
A Constitution of a country should have a vision. A vision is a description of what the country will look like if it succeeds in implementing it's constitutional recommendations and achieves it's full potential of a peaceful and a better country. The constitutional recommendations should strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may asocial order in which justice, social, economic and political principles shall form all parts of institutions goals in the nation. Ethics is a moral law of doing good or bad. Every person has a right to be treated in a dignified manner at every state of his life. It is the duty of principles fundamental in the governance of the country to secure social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people.
The country's constitution should have clauses that guide the behaviour of the people in social relations and in any other human interactions. Professional bodies, individual companies, Non-Governmental Organisations e.t.c. should be required by law to outline their ethics and give ways in which they will ensure that members of these organizations will strictly follow these ethical rules or regulations or code of conducts and the consequences of not following them.
The Constitution should ensure that:
* Operations of the legal system promotes justice on the basis of equal
* opportunities for all.
* Men and Women equally have a right to adequate means of livelihood.
* There is equitable distribution of natural resources of the country
* Those who rule or have power, have respect for the rule of law.
* The country should discuss and determine minimum basic ethical standards for the society with particular reference to meeting basic human needs i.e. individual right to own land, shelter, employment, to enjoy natural wealth, right of conscience, food, education good health (free medical services),respect and dignity, right to be listened to, right to private prosecutions, right to live anywhere in the country.
* Right to life, right of protection, and good health.
6.02 THE ROLE OF LIVING VALUES IN A CONSTITUTION
Including Living Values Principles in the constitution is reaffirming the acceptance of the dignity and worth of the individual and sacredness or divine nature of human life.
The Constitutional team should explore the skills for the creation of Living Values based atmosphere or ethos, when drawing up principles of management of public affairs.
Living Values such as Peace, Love, Unity (President Moi's Ideology), Cooperation (Harambee) Freedom (Uhuru) have been adopted by our political leaders; i.e. President Daniel, Arap Moi is a living model in practicing other values such as Honesty , Humility , Simplicity, Respect ,Responsibility, and Tolerance, in the management of our public affairs. The constitution of Kenya Review Commission should enshrine these values in form our national ethos, Philosophy, Ideology, Motors, Slogans, National Anthem e.t.c. Values should form the bedrock or a charter of our national behaviour, they should guide our daily activities.
5.03 ETHICS AND VALUES TO BE INCORPERATED IN A CONSTITUTION
(i) The 12 Core Values: Cooperation, Freedom, Happiness, Honesty .Humility, Love, Peace, Respect, Responsibility, Simplicity, Tolerance, and Unity should be the fundamental guiding principles in the Governance of the country and the Constitution of Kenya Review Commission should apply these values - principles in Constitutional Making.
(ii) The Core Values, when applied in making our constitution should promote the welfare of the people by securing, as effectively as possible the social order in which justice, social, economic and political policies will be based. These value principles will strengthen the constitutional role in enactment of universal human rights provisions in our laws.
(iii) The Kenya Constitution should protect the nation from unethical values such as those which are likely to destroy the country i.e.
* Uncontrolled use of natural resources.
* Destruction of the environment, poor disposal of dangerous wastes, pollution of the air, water and the soil.
* Land grabbing
* Haphazard planning of our towns and rural areas.
* Inequitable distribution of resources .
* Improving the achievements of human needs in daily life, eradication of poverty, ignorance, and disease.
* Promoting individuals rights to know the truth, right to work, right to live together, right to speak ones mind (conscience) without ridiculing authority and others, right to physical and moral integrity.
(iv) Strengthen the education of ethics social, spiritual and work ethics in our institutions. Ethics or Moral Laws; is the guide of man's actions in the form of imperatives reasoning powers, commanding us to do certain things and to refrain from doing others. Moral Law is the light of natural reason by which we discern what is good and what is evil. Ethics and values need to be taught in all our education and training programmes in the country.
(v) The constitution should provide checks and balances for statements, through the media, which are likely to have negative effects on our moral values.
(vi) Look at the role of informal education from the mass media, regarding unethical advertisements and entertainment. The Constitution should provide protection from immorality and thus, avoiding damaging our cultural values, universal human values, and peoples moral integrity.
5.04 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW
(i) Need to establish National Ethical Codes of Conduct for:
(a) Public Servants
(c) Professional organizations
(d) Non-Governmental organizations
(f) Business people
(ii) There is need to draw up an accepted National Policy, Ideology, Motor, Spirit, Anthem , Poems, Songs which should cherish the fundamental freedoms, social justice, equity, cultural beliefs, to guide the principles of running or managing the country, (i.e Ujamaa in Tanzania), (Harambee, Love , Peace and Unity in Kenya)
(iii) Social Ethics and Living Values be introduced in the curriculum of our schools, colleges and universities.
(iv) Constitution of Kenya as a subject should be taught in schools, Tertiary
Institutions (collages) including Universities. (v) The constitution must have a well-written vision and objectives to reflect what type of country we want and the strategies or how to achieve those
(vi) The constitution should try to address the problem of basic humans needs, achievement or need satisfaction, which will engender enjoyment of living within our borders. (vii) Teaching of living values based education programme
Let us take a cue from the Convention of the Rights of the Child, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20th November,1989. Articarl 29 states in part that:
".....the education of the child shall be directed to the development of the child's personality, talents, and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential...." And "the preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of the sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin...." As well as "the development of respect for the natural environment."
Furthermore, the convention reaffirms its conviction on what the United Nations states as "their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person....."
Within this context together with Kenyan newly enacted Children's Rights Act it is vital to carefully design leaning strategies that should succeed in making the values being targeted to be fully integrated into the living, working, and thinking environment of the child. Five strategies suggest themselves:
Demonstration by example, activity, and stories the fundamentals of developing a Self-respecting personality, confident thereby respecting others, including authority and the Supreme Soul-self-realization; the existence of the individual uniqueness; and the empowerment of the individual to choose their own set of values.
Practical demonstration and involvement, through one-on-one learning experience, of the process of self-discovery-through contemplation, and silence and medication, within the school environment as well as outside (for example, in church, home Sunday school).
Basing the inculcation of Living Values Education on real-life situations - by trying to evolve viable tactics for resolution of conflicts, isolation tendencies, and of going it alone, as examples.
Developing training methods for teachers so as to make them become capable of integrating Living Values Education into the soon-to-be-revised curriculum, with the teacher's target being to prepare the children for lifelong living, while he himself adopts the attitudes of listening, being accessible, flexible in terms of detailed delivery, and willing to learn along with the children.
How to ensure that the impact of the teachers and parents as role models for the values which are positive and helpful.
The thread that runs through this set of 5 categories of learning strategies is that we want to ascertain that the lessons of the Living Values are internalized as the student moves form the lower primary to the upper levels of the High School step-by-step. This is being accomplished in an atmosphere of live involvement, through individual reflection and contemplation, group discussion and debate, through the telling and acting of stories and allegories, through drama and music, through activity and practice of each living value in turn.
I have attempted to show in this paper that education can mould, reform, and change individuals attitudes, interests and behaviour. Character is a product of education process. With carefully selected learning or teaching contents prepared to develop cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains should bring up the required values.
It is possible to develop appropriately these three aspects of personality. Our education. Formal, Non-formal, Informal and Self-education systems should strive to develop all human's multiple, intelligence's i.e, Logical/Mathematics, Body/Kinesthetic, Environment/Ethical, Verbal, Visual, Interpersonal, Intra-personal abilities. Our children should learn to know, learn to do, learn to be and learn to live together.
I have also tried to show in this paper that creating value based learning environment is very important in our educational institutions. Learning environment determines our future behaviour. Learning Living Values, will enable us to see the abundant potential in humanity, let us promote and bring out these positive skills for a better Kenya.
The Constitution of Kenya, should stipulate fundamental principles of better governance. It should draw up the states obligations to the citizens and the citizens responsibilities to enable the populace to enjoy living together.
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