Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
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Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
CHAPTER 1 - FINANCE
Distribution of Revenues between the Federation and the Provinces.
160.National Finance Commission.
(1) Within six months of the commencing day and thereafter at intervals not exceeding five years, the President shall constitute a National Finance Commission consisting of the Minister of Finance of the Federal Government, the Ministers of Finance of the Provincial Governments, and such other persons as may be appointed by the President after consultation with the Governors of the Provinces. (2) It shall be the duty of the National Finance Commission to make recommendations to the President as to-
(a) the distribution between the.Federation and the Provinces of the net proceeds of the taxes mentioned in clause (3);
(b) the making of grants-in-aid by the Federal Government to the Provincial Governments;
(c) the exercise by the Federal Government and the Provincial Governments of the borrowing powers conferred by the Constitution; and
(d) any other matter relating to finance referred to the Commission by the President.
(3) The taxes refer red to in paragraph (a) of clause (2) are the following taxes raised under the authority of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), namely: -
(i) taxes on income, including corporation tax, but not including taxes on income consisting of remuneration paid out of the Federal Consolidated Fund;
(ii) taxes on the sales and purchases of goods imported, exported, produced, manufactured or consumed;
(iii) export duties on cotton, and such other export duties as may be specified by the President;
(iii) export duties on cotton, and such other export duties as may be specified by the President;
(iv) such duties of exercise as may be specified by the President; and
(v) such other taxes as may be specified by the President.
(4) As soon as may be after receiving the recommendation, of the National Finance Commission, the President shall, by Order, specify, in accordance with the recommendations of the Commission under paragraph (a) of clause (2), the share of the net proceeds of the taxes mentioned in clause (3) which is to be allocated to each Province, and that share shall be paid to the Government of the Province concerned, and, notwithstanding the provision of Article 78 shall not form part of the Federal Consolidated Fund.
(5) The recommendations of the National Finance Commission, together with an explanatory memorandum as to the action taken thereon, shall be laid before both Houses and the Provincial Assemblies.
(6) At any time before an Order under clause (4) is made, the President may, by Order, make such amendments or modifications in the law relating to the distribution of revenues between the Federal Government and the Provincial Governments as he may deem necessary or expedient.
(7) The President may, by Order, make grants-in-aid of the revenues of the Provinces in need of assistance and such grants shall be charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund.
161.Natural gas and hydro-electric power.
(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 78 the net proceeds of the Federal duty of excise on natural gas levied at well-head and collected by the Federal Government, and of the royalty collected by the Federal Government, shall not form part of the Federal Consolidated Fund and shall be paid to the Province in which the well-head of natural gas is situated.
(2) The net profits earned by the Federal Government, or any undertaking established or administered by the Federal Government from the bulk generation of power at a hydro-electric station shall be paid to the Province in which the hydro-electric station is situated.
Explanation -For the purposes of this clause "net profits" shall be computed by deducting from the revenues accruing from the bulk supply of power from the bus-bars of a hydro-electric station at a rate to be determined by the Council of Common Interests, the operating expenses of the station, which shall include any sums payable as taxes, duties, interest or return on investment, and depreciations and element of obsolescence, and over-heads, and provision for reserves.
162. Prior sanction of President to Bills affecting taxation in which Provinces are interested.
No Bill or amendment which imposes or varies a tax or duty the whole or part of the net proceeds whereof is assigned to any Province, or which varies the meaning of the expression "agricultural income" as defined for the purpose of the enactments relating to income-tax, or which affects the principles on which under any of the foregoing provisions of this Chapter moneys are or may be distributable to Provinces, shall be introduced or moved in the National Assembly except with the previous sanction of the President.
163. Provincial taxes in respect of professions, etc.
A Provincial Assembly may by Act impose taxes, not exceeding such limits as may from time to time be fixed by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), on persons engaged in professions, trades, callings or employments, and no such Act of the Assembly shall be regarded as imposing a tax on income.
Miscellaneous Financial Provisions
164. Grants out of Consolidated Fund.
The Federation or a Province may make grants for any purpose, notwithstanding that the purpose is not one with respect to which Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or, as the case may be, a Provincial Assembly may make laws.
165. Exemption of certain public property from taxation.
(1) The Federal Government shall not, in respect of its property or income, be liable to taxation under any Act of Provincial Assembly and, subject to clause (2), a Provincial Government shall not, in respect of its property or income, be liable to taxation under Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or under Act of the Provincial Assembly of any other Province.
(2) If a trade or business of any kind is carried on by or on behalf of the Government of a Province outside that Province, that Government may, in respect of any property used in connection with that trade or business or any income arising from that trade or business, be taxed under Act of [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or under Act of the Provincial Assembly of the Province in which that trade or business is carried on.
(3) Nothing in this Article shall prevent the imposition of fees for services rendered.
165A. Power of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) to impose tax on the income of certain corporations, etc.
(1) For the removal of doubt, it is hereby declared that Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) has, and shall be deemed always to have had, the power to make a law to provide for the levy and recovery of a tax on the income of a corporation, company or other body or institution established by or under a Federal law or a Provincial law or an existing law or a corporation, company or other body or institution owned or controlled, either directly or indirectly, by the Federal Government or a Provincial Government, regardless of the ultimate destination of such income.
(2) All orders made, proceedings taken and acts done by any authority or person, which were made, taken or done, or purported to have been made, taken or done, before the commencement of the Constitution (Amendment) Order 1985, in exercise of the powers derived from any law referred to in clause (1), or in execution of any orders made by any authority in the exercise or purported exercise of powers as aforesaid, shall, notwithstanding any judgment of any court or tribunal,including the Supreme Court and a High Court, be deemed to be and always to have been validly made, taken or done and-shall not be called in question in any court, including the Supreme Court and a High Court, on any ground whatsoever.
(3) Every judgment or order of any court or tribunal, including the Supreme Court and a High Court, which is repugnant to the provisions of clause (1) or clause (2) shall be, and shall be deemed always to have been, void and of no effect whatsoever.
CHAPTER 2 - BORROWING AND AUDIT
166. Borrowing by Federal Government.
The executive authority of the Federation extends to borrowing upon the security of the Federal Consolidated Fun d within such limits, if any, as may from time to time be fixed by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), and to the giving of guarantees within such limits, if any, as may be so fixed.
167. Borrowing by Provincial Government.
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Article, the executive authority of a Province extends to borrowing upon the security of the Provincial Consolidated Fund within such limits, if any, as may from time to time be fixed by Act of the Provincial Assembly, and to the giving of guarantees within such limits, if any, as may be so fixed.
(2) The Federal Government may, subject to such conditions, if any, as it may think fit to impose, make loans to, or so long as any limits fixed under Article 166 are not exceeded give guarantees in respect of loans raised by, any Province, and any sums required for the purpose of making loans to a Province shall be charged upon the Federal Consolidated Fund.
(3) A Province may not, without the consent of the Federal Government, raise any loan if there is still outstanding any part of a loan made to the Province by the Federal Government, or in respect of which guarantee has been given by the Federal Government; and consent under this clause may be granted subject to such conditions, if any, as the Federal Government may think fit to impose.
Audit and Accounts
168. Auditor-General of Pakistan.
(1) There shall be an Auditor-General of Pakistan, who shall be appointed by the President.
(2) Before entering upon office, the Auditor-General shall make before the Chief Justice of Pakistan oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.
(3) The terms and conditions of service, including the term of office, of the Auditor-General shall be determined by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and, until so determined, by Order of the President.
(4) A person who has held office as Auditor-General shall not be eligible for further appointment in the service of Pakistan before the expiration of two years after he has ceased to hold that office.
(5) The Auditor-General shall not be removed from office except in the - like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court.
(6) At any time when the office of the Auditor-General is vacant or the Auditor-General is absent or is unable to perform the functions of his office due to any cause, such other person as the President may direct shall act as Auditor-General and perform the functions of that office.
169. Functions and powers of Auditor-General.
The Auditor-General shall, in relation to-
(a) the accounts of the Federation and of the Provinces; and
(b) the accounts of any authority or body established by the Federation or a Province, perform such functions and exercise such powers as may be determined by or under Act of' Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and, until so determined, by Order of the President.
170. Power of Auditor-General to give directions as to accounts.
The accounts of the Federation and of the Provinces shall be kept in such form and in accordance with such principles and methods as the Auditor-General may, with the approval of the President, prescribe.
171. Reports of Auditor-General.
The reports of the Auditor-General relating to the accounts of the Federation shall be submitted to the President, who shall cause them to be laid before the National Assembly and the reports of the Auditor-General relating to the accounts of a Province shall be submitted to the Governor of the Province, who shall cause them to be laid before the Provincial Assembly.
CHAPTER 3 - PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, LIABILITIES AND SUITS.
172. Ownerless property.
(1) Any property which has no rightful owner shall, if located in a Province, vest in the Government of that Province, and in every other case, in the Federal Government.
(2) All lands, minerals and other things of value within the continental shelf or underlying the ocean within the territorial waters of Pakistan shall vest in the Federal Government.
173. Power to acquire property and to make contracts, etc.
(1) The executive authority of the Federation and of a Province shall extend, subject to any Act of the appropriate Legislature, to the grant, sale, disposition or mortgage of any property vested in, and to the purchase or acquisition of property on behalf of, the Federal Government or, as the case may be, the Provincial Government, and to the making of contracts.
(2) All property acquired for the purposes of the Federation or of a Province shall vest in the Federal Government or, as the case may be, in the Provincial Government.
(3) All contracts made in the exercise of the executive authority of the Federation or of a Province shall be expressed to be made in the name of the President or, as the case may be, the Governor of the Province, and all such contracts and all assurances of property made in the exercise of that authority shall be executed on behalf of the President or Governor by such persons and in such manner as he may direct or authorize.
(4) Neither the President, nor the Governor of a Province, shall be personally liable in respect of any contract or assurance made or executed in the exercise of the executive authority of the Federation or, as the case may be, the Province, nor shall any person making or executing any such contract or assurance on behalf of any of them be personally liable in respect thereof.
(5) Transfer of land by the Federal Government or a Provincial Government shall be regulated by law.
174. Suits and proceedings.
The Federation may sue or be sued by the name of Pakistan and a Province may sue or be sued by the name of the Province.